Domains Glossary of Terms

A

A Record

This setting is used to point a domain name to a specific IP address. An A Record is used to point a logical domain name, such as “google.com”, to the IP address of Google’s hosting server, “74.125.224.147”

AC

Advisory Committee of ICANN is a formal advisory body, composed of representatives from the Internet community with expertise in a particular issue, e.g. GAC, SSAC, etc

ACPA

Anti-Cybersquatting Protection Act Legislation in the United States designed to deal with cybersquatting in certain circumstances

ASO

Address Supporting Organization The ASO is a supporting organization whose purpose is to review and develop recommendations on Internet Protocol address policy and to advise the ICANN Board

B

BRG

The Brand Registry Group is a trade association representing the interests of brand owners who applied for single-registrant, closed registries with ICANN. The BRG is an associate member of the RySG, so has one vote within that stakeholder group

C

ccNSO

Country Code Names Supporting Organization The ccNSO is a body within the ICANN structure created for and by ccTLD managers

ccTLD

Country Code Top-Level Domain. These are two letter domain names that are associated with a specific country, such as .us for the United States or .ca for Canada

CNAME

Canonical Name Record. CNAME records is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) that maps one domain name (an alias) to another (the canonical name)

Consensus Policy

A policy created through the GNSO policy development process listed in Annex A of the ICANN Bylaws. Consensus policies are binding on Registries and Registrars through their contracts. For more information, see the list of Consensus Policies that have been adopted by the ICANN Board of Directors

Contact Record - Contact ID

Contact Records or Contact IDs (sometimes called Agents) are individuals or groups who represent a registrant on matters related to the registrant's domain name(s). There are three types of Contacts: Administrative, Technical, and Billing. The entity listed as the Administrative, Technical, or Billing Contact is an individual or 'role' that is contacted in matters relating to the domain name. They also have the ability to Modify information pertaining to a domain name. A Contact may be a single person, a company, or organization

Cybersquatting

The process of registering a domain with the intent of preventing someone else from doing it, in the hopes to block them, steal traffic, or sell the domain to the other party at an inflated price.

D

DNS

Domain Name System. This System translates a domain name such as rshweb.com into the Internet Protocol (IP) numbers to find the correct website. The network of computers that constitute the Internet map domain names to their corresponding IP numbers. The data is then made available to all computers and users on the Internet

DNSSEC

Domain Name System Security Extensions. A set of Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards created to address vulnerabilities in the Domain Name System (DNS) and protect it from online threats

Domain Name

A domain name is a text name or string of characters (e.g. rshweb.com) which provides a more memorable name to stand in for the address of a Website or computer. This domain name typically points to a set of numbers known as an IP addresses or URL. Domain names were developed to allow users to name these (IP) addresses with easy to remember names or phrases. Domain names are also used in email addresses

Domain Parking

Registries require the use of name servers or hosts for every domain registered. In other words, every domain name has to be linked to a name server for it to be valid. Some people do not have they own name servers, therefore RSH Web Services offers 'domain parking' (name parking) on its servers. It is a convenient way to hold or 'park' domain name(s) for an extended amount of time

Domain Privacy

A feature often provided by domain registrars that hides the domain name owner information from the search results of a WHOIS inquiry

Domain Extension

The last letters of a domain name, such as .com, that indicates the registry the domain is associated with, and as in the case of ccTLDs, the country

Dot Brand Domain

A dot brand domain is a new generic Top Level Domain that has been registered by a brand. Examples include: .gucci, .microsoft, .kpmg.

E

ePDP

Expedited Policy Development Process. EPDPs are a GNSO policy function set out in the ICANN Bylaws used to establish Consensus Policy. They are the same as GNSO PDPs except they have a shorter scoping and issue identification phase

ERRP

Expired Registration Recovery Policy. Is an ICANN policy covering the process we must take when a gTLD domain is lapsing.

F

FQDN

Fully Qualified Domain Name. The full hostname that directs to a server. It must consist of a host and domain name. For example, www.rshweb.com is a fully qualified domain name. www is the host, rshweb is the second-level domain, and the .com part of the top-level domain (TLD).

G

GDPR

General Data Protection Regulation. European Regulation 2016/679 is a regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy

GNSO

Generic Names Supporting Organization. The GNSO is a policy-development body that is responsible for developing the policy for all gTLDs

gTLD

Generic Top Level Domain. Also know as nTLD (New Top Level Domain) Outside of the main group of gTLDs like .COM and .NET. There are a new expansion of a 1000+ domain extensions. Some examples are .center .city .date .education .faith .gallery .hockey .institute .online .photography

gTLD Applicant Guidebook

Applicant Guidebook describing the requirements of the application and evaluation processes for a new gTLD

H

Hosting

This term can be used to refer to the housing of a website, email or a domain. See Email hosting and website hosting for more detail

Hostname

A host is any system connected to a network and assigned a unique IP address and/or name. The name rshweb.com, for example, is a host with the IP address of 162.255.161.46

I

IANA

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. The authority originally responsible for the governing of IP address allocation, the management of DNS, and the oversight of the root name server system amongst other things

ICANN

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. An international non-profit corporation that is responsible for Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain name system management, and root server system management functions

IDN

Internationalized Domain Names. Are domains that contain character sets outside of the standard ASCII format, normally reflecting the registrant’s local language such as Arabic, French, Cyrillic, Greek, Chinese and Korean

InterNIC

Internet Network Information Center (NIC). Known as InterNIC, denotes a place on the Internet where users can find important information, such as WHOIS and domain name registration information

IP address

The numeric identification number that refers to a specific machine on the Internet. Example: 162.255.161.46

IP number

ISP stands for Internet Service Provider. An ISP provides access to the Internet for others via some connectivity service(s). This might be in the form of dial up services, web hosting services or the combination of both

IPv4 / IPv6

There currently are two popular versions of Internet Protocol, IPv4, and the newer, IPv6. IPv4 was developed back in the 1980s and has a limited capacity of IP addresses, around 4 billion. 205.210.42.135 is an example of IPv4. IPv6 has 340 undecillion. addresses. IPv6 allows for 128-bit address space. 2001:1838:f001::10 is an example of IPv6

J

Java - Java Script

A non-compiled command language used in HTML applications where the instructions are managed by the browser

JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group. A JPEG is a compressed image file format

K

Kbps

"KiloBits Per Second" 1 kilobit = 1,000 bits. A measurement of digital transmission speeds

Key Code

A key code is a sequence of numbers that gives you security access

L

LACNIC

Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre. Manages the distribution of Internet number resources as in IPv4 and IPv6. They are the regional Internet registry for Latin America and many Caribbean countries

Landrush Period

The landrush phase is a period of time immediately following the launch of a TLD and provides the first opportunity for the general public to apply to register a domain name in that particular TLD

LIR

Local Internet Registry. A LIR is an Internet Registry (IR) that primarily assigns address space to the users of the network services that it provides. LIRs are generally ISPs, whose customers are primarily end users and possibly other ISPs.

M

MailServer

A computer or Server running programs that distributes files or information in response to requests sent via e-mail

Modify Domain

Modify is a function where contact information or DNS information can be updated to reflect new changes pertaining to a domain name. Administrative and Technical Contacts have the ability to modify domain name information

MX Record

Mail Exchange Record. A record specifies where e-mail should be delivered. For example our MX record is mail.rshweb.com. An MX record also contains a numeric priority. The lower the priority number, the higher the priority

N

Name Servers

A computer that performs the mapping of domain names to IP addresses. Sometimes referred to as a host server

Name Service (Primary or Secondary)

The domain name-to-Internet Protocol (IP) number resolution is known as Name Service. Many Hosting Providers operate name servers and provide their customers with name service when they register a domain name

NAPTR Record

Name Authority Pointer Records. Are often used for Internet telephone service such as voice or video calls (VOIP)

New Top-Level Domain (nTLD)

TLD stands for “Top-Level Domain” and the “n” stands for “new.” A TLD is a string of characters that follow your domain name. For example, in the domain “rshweb.com” the TLD, or domain extension, is .com. nTLDs are newer to the market, and include extensions such as .club .design .news

NIC Handle

Network Information Centre. A NIC Handle is a unique identifier, which can be up to 10 alpha-numeric characters, assigned to each domain name record, contact record, and network record

NS Records

NS records are used to delegate a subdomain to another set of nameservers outside of what the root domain is using.

O

ODBC

Open Database Connectivity. Any application that supports ODBC can access information from an ODBC-compatible database, regardless of what database management system the database uses

Open Source

When a software program is Open Source, it means the program's source code is freely available to the public. Unlike commercial software, open source programs can be modified and distributed freely

P

PDDRP

(Post-Delegation Dispute Resolution Procedure) The Trademark PDDRP provides trademark holders the opportunity to seek redress from new gTLD Registry Operators exhibiting bad faith intent to profit from the systemic registration of infringing domain names

PDP

Policy Development Proces. There are three different PDPs set out in the ICANN Bylaws: GNSO PDPs, GNSO EPDPs, ccNSO PDPs. The GNSO PDP and EPDP are where Consensus Policies are developed. (These are binding on Registries and Registrars). Unless specified, GNSO PDPs apply to all gTLDs, not just new gTLDs

PDT (new gTLD Pre Delegation Testing)

Pre-delegation is a phase prior to delegation whereby applicants must complete a pre-delegation technical test to validate information submitted in their new gTLD application. This test must be passed by all new gTLD applicants before they are allowed to be introduced into the root zone

Premium Domain

A high-value domain name that has been previously registered. They often contain valuable SEO keywords. Premium domain names have a stronger branding potential, are easier to remember, and attract more website traffic than standard domain names

Primary Server

The designation of "primary" means that this name server will be used first and will be relied upon before any of the other name servers that may be listed on the Domain Name Registration Agreement. The primary server section of the Agreement is a required section and the domain name registration will not be processed unless this section of the Domain Name Registration Agreement is completed properly

Q

QBE

Stands for "Query By Example." QBE is a feature included with various database applications that provides a user-friendly method of running database queries

Queue

A queue is a list of jobs that are awaiting to be processed. When a job is sent to a queue, it is simply added to the list of jobs

R

Registrar

Domain names can be registered through many different companies (known as "registrars") that compete with one another. A listing of these companies appears in the Accredited Registrar Directory

Registrant

The organization responsible for the actual administration and maintenance to a top-level domain is known as the registry. The registry is where registrants or registrars go for new or modify domain name request

Registry Fees

Most TLD registries require initial registration fees as well as annual or bi-annual renewal fees. Prices vary from cost-free to thousands of dollars per domain depending on the TLD chosen

Registry Lock

Registry Lock is a service that provides an extra layer of security for your domain. There are certainly higher risk domains that can have attempts of hijacking and registry lock helps prevent this. The domain is locked down at the registry level. It ca not be deleted, transferred, or have any domain name information changed

RGP (Redemption Grace Period)

Redemption Grace Period (RGP) occurs when a domain has either surpassed the registrar grace expiry period or has been deleted by the Registry. Redemption is typically a 30 day period when the registrar can redeem the domain on behalf of the registrant. The domain will not function during the Redemption period. Requestors will be required to authenticate the request and are subject to a redemption service charge on top of the renewal fee

Root Servers

The root servers contain the IP addresses of all the TLD registries - both the global registries such as .com, .org, etc. and the 244 country-specific registries such as .fr (France), .cn (China), etc

Renewal

Registration for most domain names needs to be renewed based on some scheduled yearly interval. This gives the registrant (you) and the registry (the administrator of the Top Level Domain) an opportunity to update contact information and name registration. This usually includes payment of the registration fee(s)

Root Zone

The root zone database represents the delegation details of top-level domains, including gTLDs and ccTLDs. As the managing body of the DNS root zone, IANA is responsible for coordinating these delegations in accordance with its policies and procedures.

S

Secondary Server

The designation of "secondary" indicates that the name server will be used in addition to and as a backup for the primary name server that is listed on the Domain Name Registration Agreement

Second Level Domain

In the Domain Name System (DNS), the next highest level of the hierarchy underneath the Top Level Domains. Our domain name - rshweb - for example is part of the Internet address for RSH Web Services. The rshweb part is the second level domain. Second level domain names are what you register by or on behalf of registrants (or owners) in a Top Level Domain registry

SOA Record

Start of Authority Record. Is the first record in every zone file that contains the serial number and how nameservers get the zonefile information. SOA record includes Refresh, Retry, Expire, and TTL

SRV Record

A SRV record – Service Record – is a general record that can be used in a generic fashion rather than creating protocol-specific records such as MX

SSAC

Security and Stability Advisory Committee. The SSAC advises the ICANN community and Board on matters relating to the security and integrity of the Internet’s naming and address allocation systems

Subdomain

A separate address located under a domain name. Example could be "mail.rshweb.com"

Sunrise

Sunrise is a pre-launch phase providing trademark holders the opportunity to register domain names in a TLD before registration is generally available to the public. All new non-brand gTLD registries will have an obligation to provide a minimum 30 days notification of sunrise and then a 30-day sunrise period

T

TBR

To Be Released. Is a previously registered .CA domain name that has lapsed and now deleted and is available for re-registration during a special registration session known as a TBR session

Top Level Domain (TLD)

The .com .net .info .org is the top level domain. The second level domain name (rshweb) are what you would register. There are two types of Top Level Domains. The most common type is Generic or gTLDs, such as .COM, .NET, .INFO .ORG. The other type of TLD are the .cc TLD (country code top level domains) which are assigned to all countries and their dependencies

Transfer (Domain Name transfer)

Domain names can be sold to another organization or sometimes the name of a company might change. Most registries require a process by which permission from the old owner to hand over control to the new owner is authorized. The procedure for change of ownership is known a Transfer. Policies and procedures on domain name transfer can vary from registry to registry

U

UDRP

Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy. A policy for resolving disputes arising from alleged abusive registration of domain names (for example, cybersquatting), allowing expedited administrative proceedings that a trademark rights holder initiates by filing a complaint with an approved dispute resolution service provider

URL

Universal Resource Locator. This is the string of numbers and symbols located in the address bar at the top of your web browser, which includes all of the information your computer needs to find the right page, image, or document on a website

URS (Uniform Rapid Suspension)

The URS provides trademark holders with a rapid and efficient mechanism to “take down” undeniably infringing domain names. A successful proceeding will result in suspension of the domain name. Compliance with results is mandatory for all new gTLD operators.

V

Verisign

Verisign is the Registrar of top-level domains .com .net .name. Generic top-level domains of .cc and .tv country-code. And the back-end systems for the .jobs, .gov, and .edu top-level domains

W

WAP

Whois Accuracy Program. A ICANN based registration verification program that will require the listed registrant contact to verify their first name, last name, and e-mail address

Web Host

The server where your website's html files, graphics, etc. reside is known as the web host

Whois

Whois is a term referring to a domain name search or look-up feature for a database - typically for Top-Level Domain name registries. Information such as name availability can be found through a query or search using a whois protocol (standard). Most Top-Level Domain registries maintain their own whois database containing domain name contact information

WIPO

World Intellectual Property Organization. United Nations body devoted to the protection of intellectual property rights and an administrator of the UDRP

WWW (World Wide Web)

Or simple "The Web" is one of the most popular ways of using the Internet because it allows you to view formatted documents, files images and hyperlinks to take you to other web pages or websites. Browser software is required to "surf the Net" for Web page information

X

XHTML

eXtensible HyperText Markup Language. Basically HTML expressed as valid XML. XHTML is intended to be used in the same places you would use HTML (creating web pages) but is much more strictly defined

XMPP

Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol formerly named Jabber. Is an open, XML-based protocol originally aimed at near-real-time, extensible instant messaging (IM) and presence information

Y

Yobibyte

A yobibyte is a unit of data storage that equals 2 to the 80th power, or 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bytes.

Z

Zone file

The group of files that reside on the domain host or name server. The zone file designates a domain, its sub-domains, and mail server

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